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Research Articles and Patents


Papers relative to the Microbe Electrifier:
Biocompatible Electric Current Attenuates HIV-1 Infectivity

PATENT 5,139,684; Electrically conductive methods and systems for treatment of blood

Papers relative to the Candida Zapper:


Papers relative to the DC Electrifier:
Effects of Microamperage, Medium, and Bacterial Concentration on Iontophoretic Killing of Bacteria in Fluid
Inactivation of bacterial population in hide-soak liquors via direct electric current


Papers relative to the Herpes Zapper:
Patent 5,133,352: Method for Treating Herpes Simplex


Papers relative to the OMF Generator:
2 patents and FDA report

Health Effects of Electro-Magnetic Fields
from Science News, Vol. 156, No. 20
November 13, 1999, p. 316

Two previous studies had found that electro-magnetic fields (EMFs) reduce pain and swelling. EMFs also have that effect in a new trial headed by orthopedic surgeon Roy K. Aaron. Presumably, he says, it does it "by changing the chemistry of the joint." Studies by his team and others indicate that these fields can increase a joint's production of natural anti-inflammatory agents, such as transforming growth factor-beta. Not surprisingly, Aaron notes, medical supply companies are now developing products, such as a glove with coils, to deliver EMFs to arthritis-ravaged joints. Softer tissues also respond to these fields. For instance, Arthur A. Pilla, a biophysicist at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City, observes that many people with bone breaks experience significant pain in muscles around their injuries. Shortly after EMF therapy begins, however, that pain disappears. Though the mechanism remains elusive, Pilla says, the treatment seems to affect swelling, which can cause pain. If this proves true, he says, EMFs might benefit people with carpal tunnel syndrome, where swelling in the wrist pinches nerves going to the fingers. Indeed, that's a possibility that Betty F. Sisken of the University of Kentucky College of Medicine in Lexington would like to explore. Currently, she's probing EMFs' direct influence on nerves. In their initial studies, she and her colleagues crushed a nerve in the hind leg of rats and then treated the animals with EMFs for 4 hours daily.


William D. Lyman, Irwin R. Merkatz
William C. Hatch and Steven C. Kaali
Departments of Pathology, and Obstetrics & Gyneclogy
Albert Einstein College of Medicine,
1300 Morris Park Ave. Bronx, N.Y. 10461


In this report, we present the results of double-blinded studies on the use of direct electric current to alter the infectivity of HIV-1 for susceptible cells in vitro. These experimental currents were equal to 3.85 and 7.7µA/mm2 current densities respectively. The reduction of infectivity was dependent upon the total electric charge (µA x min) passing through the chamber to which the virus was exposed. Viral infectivity was determined by two independent measures: a syncytium-formation assay which can be used to quantify the production of infectious particles; and a reverse transcriptase assay which is an index of viral protein production.


Syncytium-formation assay:

Using this index of HIV-1 infectivity, it was determined that exposing virus to direct electric current suppressed its capacity to induce the formation of syncytia. Figure 1 shows a representative experiment and Table 2 shows the Croup data for 3 separate experiments. As can be noted in Figure 1, a statistically significant (p<0.001) reduction in syncytium number was absented and this reduction was dependent upon the current applied to the viral isolate. At three different viral dilutions, there were analogous results in that a total charge of 200µA x min (25µA for 8 minutes) reduced the number of syncytia from 50% to 65% while a charge of 3O0µA x min (50µA for 6 minutes, 75µA for 4 minutes or 100µA for 3 minutes) resulted in 90% reduction.

Reverse transcriptase assay:
The direct electric currents to which HIV-l was exposed also reduced reverse transcriptase activity. Five separate experiments were conducted and a representative experiment is shown in Figure 2 and the data are included in Table 3. As can be seen in Figure 2, there was a significant decrease in the amount of reverse transcriptase activity after exposure of the virus to either 50A for 3 or 6 minutes. An equivalent reduction in reverse transcriptase activity was also noted with exposure to 100µA for 3 minutes and almost ablation of reverse transcriptase activity was seen with exposure of the viral isolate to 100µA for 6 minutes. The group data (Table 3) show that after exposure to 50µA for 6 minutes, there was a 44% reduction in activity and treatment of virus with 100µA for 6 minutes resulted in a 94% reduction. An analysis of variance indicates that the decrease in reverse transcriptase activity was statistically significant (p<0.0001).

The results reported here demonstrate that HIV-1 treated with direct electric currents from 50 to 100µA has a significantly reduced infectivity for susceptible cells in vitro. This reduction of infectivity correlates with the total electric charge passing through the chamber. The therapeutic potential of electric current may reside in its ability to lower the viral titer to subclinical significance or in its incorporation into a strategy analogous to that of other therapies in which repeated cycles of treatment eventually achieve remission or cure. It may be also feasible to treat AIDS patients with direct electric current using either extracorporeal [out of body] systems or self contained indwelling electrodes.

Figure l

Syncytium Formation at 1:160 dilution
exposure (µA/minute) 0/6 25/8 50/6 75/4 100/3
# of syncytium formed 128 45 9 7 2

Five aliquots of the RF strain of HIV-1 were exposed to direct electric current. At all the dilutions tested, electrical treatment of the virus aliquots resulted in a significant decrease in syncytium formation.

Figure 2

Reverse Transcriptase Activity

exposure (µA/minute)  0/3 0/6 50/3  50/6 100/3 100/6 
reverse transcriptase 300 205 108 105 100 12 count per million x 10-3

Six aliquots of the RF strain of HIV-1 were exposed to different amounts of current for 3 or 6 minutes. A significant decrease (p<0.005) from 0 current levels (0/3 and 0/6) in reverse transcriptase activity is noted. However, the decrease is more significant (p<0.0001) when virus is exposed to 100µA for 6 minutes.

Michael's Notes:
Human CD4 immune blood cells were exposed to various amounts of electric current for various amounts of time and then mixed with HIV-1 virus. The resultant decrease in CD4 infection by the virus (resulting in cell enlargement [syncytium] and reverse transcriptase production) is listed in the two tables under the column headings indicating how much electric current in microamperes (µA= millionths of an ampere) was applied to the virus for how many minutes. 100µA applied for 3 minutes to the virus produced only approximately 2% of the number of enlarged cells (syncytium) as was produced after 6 minutes without electrical treatment of the virus. 100µA is equal to 7.7µA per square millimeter (mm2) of the surface of the electrodes delivering the electric current to the virus. Explanation of tests: Human CD4 immune cells, when exposed to HIV-1 virus, normally become infected with the virus and then enlarged as the virus reproduces itself (with the coerced help of the blood cell) within the CD4 cell. So anything that can reduce the viral infectivity (the ability of the virus to infect a cell) can be tested in the laboratory to see if less enlarged cells (syncytium) are produced which will show the degree of success of the anti-viral. Reverse transcriptase is an enzyme used by retroviruses to form a complementary DNA sequence (cDNA) from their RNA. The resulting DNA is then inserted into the chromosome of the host cell. A test showing how much is being produced is a way to quantify approximately how much viral reproduction has happened as a result of viral infection of the CD4 cells. So a test result showing reduced reverse transcriptase activity is one that shows how successful an anti-viral is at reducing the infectivity of a virus.

U.S. PATENT 5,139,684
By Steven Kaali and Peter Schwolsky
Filed 11-16-1990, approved 8-18-1992

Electrically conductive methods and systems for treatment of blood and other body fluids and/or synthetic fluids with electric forces


"...applying... no biologically damaging electric potentials... to the electrically conductive electrode segments whereby electric field forces are produced... that induce biologically compatible current flow through the blood... to attenuate bacteria, virus, parasites, fungus contained in the blood... to render the bacteria, virus, parasites, fungus ineffective while not impairing the biological usefulness of the fluids"

" attenuate such contaminants to the extent that bacteria, virus, or fungus, or parasites contained in the blood... are rendered ineffective to infect or affect healthy cells."

Best Mode of Practicing Invention:
"For example, treatment of AIDS virus in media at 100 microamperes for 3 minutes has been observed to substantially attenuate (render ineffective) the AIDS virus."

Experimental Results:
"In conclusion, these experiments... indicate at a statistically significant level that direct electric current... can attenuate the ability of HIV-1 to infect normally healthy cells which are susceptible to the HIV-1 AIDS virus." "Both of these assays (syncytia & reverse transcriptase) are widely used as reproducible measures of viral infection and can be used to determine if alternations in viral infectivity as a product of this electrical treatment can be detected." " is believed obvious that other modifications and variations of the invention will be suggested to those skilled in the art in the light of the above teachings." " is possible that certain virus may be attenuated (or attenuated at a faster rate) if they are exposed to a greater electric current magnitude of the order of 500 microamperes for shorter time periods."

Michael's Notes:
The patent's 1st laboratory test used electrically treated (at 100µA/3min which is 7.7µA per square millimeter for 3 minutes) HIV-l virus mixed with human T cells (immune cells which the HIV likes to infect) and showed 99% less infected & enlarged T cells (syncytia) by viruses after 4 days compared to T cells mixed with HIV-1 not electrically treated. The patents 2nd lab test used electrically treated (l00µA/6min) HIV-1 mixed with blood T cells and showed 72% less virus associated enzymes (reverse transcriptase produced as a result of viral reproduction) after 4 days, compared to T cells mixed with HIV-1 not treated. So to equate 7.7µA/sqmm (the most important parameter) through blood in your arms brachial artery* (that runs from elbow to elbow) that has an average cross sectional area of 16 square mm you need to multiply 16 by 7.7 to get .124mA, whereas 50µA equates to .062mA from a blood electrifier. But the electricity winds up in both arteries crossing the body between the shoulders and so this amount needs to be doubled in order to maintain the same current density. 2x.062=.124 and 2x.124=.248. Using the electrodes wrist to wrist does not necessitate applying more than .25mA for optimal effectiveness. Due to the short durations of exposure to the electricity, as the blood passes through the main arteries (~ 1 minute), it is necessary to do treatments of up to 1 - 2 hours. [see more of this patent]

Quotes from Various Electromedicine Patents

Patent 6,675,047
Electromagnetic-field therapy method and device
Pulsed [electromagnetic] field therapy produces a complex effect on the living organism, because it contributes to an improvement in the energy metabolism, increases the mobility of lymph, enhances the blood supply of capillaries, and, as a consequence, improves nutrition of all tissues of the organism. The pulse field therapy liquidates stagnation of energy in tissues, whereby painful sensations are eliminated. The pulse therapy improves ion exchange on the level of cells, regulates the intracellular pressure, this contributing to normalization of the overall metabolism.

Patent 7,024,239
Pulsed electromagnetic energy treatment apparatus and method

Electrotherapy includes various means for applying an electric or electromagnetic field to a wound area to facilitate growth and proliferation of new tissue, i.e., healing. Application of external electrical and electromagnetic fields is now an increasingly standard therapy for the treatment of non-union bone fractures, but these devices have seen limited use in other areas of healing. The present invention may also be utilized in other treatment areas where increasing the rate of growth and proliferation of cells is essential, including the treatment of burns and surgically implanted skin or soft tissue grafts, rehabilitation medicine, post surgical repair, and neuronal/brain/spinal injury repair and regeneration.

Patent 6,261,221
Flexible coil pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) stimulation therapy system

PEMF therapy has been satisfactorily used in treating spinal fusion, failed arthrodeses, osteonecrosis, and chronic refractory tendonitis, decubitus ulcers and ligament, tendon injuries, osteoporosis, and Charcot foot. During PEMF therapy, an electromagnetic transducer coil is generally placed in the vicinity of the musculoskeletal injury (sometimes referred to as the "target area") such that pulsing the transducer coil will produce an applied or driving field that penetrates to the underlying damaged bone or other body tissue.

Effects of Microamperage, Medium, and Bacterial Concentration on Iontophoretic Killing of Bacteria in Fluid
C P Davis, S Weinberg, M D Anderson, G M Rao and M M Warren
Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, April 1989, p. 442-447

An ionotophoretic generator was used to provide microamperage (10 to 400uA) to vials [by 2cm long thin metal electrodes] containg either synthetic urine or supplemented synthetic urine. Bacteria were added to vials [volume 10ml]. E coli and Proteus species were both inhibited and killed at various microamperages and with several electrode types. In general, ionotophoresis at 10, 50, 200, and 400uA killed the bacterial inocula within 2 days. Usually, the organisms were undetectable within 4 hours, except for K. pneumoniae, for which survivors were detected after 1 to 2 days.
This work suggests that even very low microamperage can be effective in reducing or eliminating bacterial growth. Klebsiella pneumoniae in supplemented synthetic urine was least inhibited in growth, and higher microamperage (200 to 400 µA) was most effective in killing the bacteria. Bacterial growth reduction and killing were directly related to increasing microamperage.

Click here for the full study.

Journal of Electrostatics
Volume 66, Issues 7-8, July 2008, Pages 355-360

Inactivation of bacterial population in hide-soak liquors via direct electric current 

Inactivation of bacteria by electric currents has received much attention due to its high efficiency, low cost, and ease of application.
Mesophilic bacteria in the first (seven samples) and main (three samples) hide-soak liquors were inactivated after 20-30 min of electrical treatment. In the other four main hide-soak liquors, the inactivation occurred after 50 min of treatment. 

Click here for the full study.

The Electricidal Effect Is Active in an Experimental Model of Staphylococcus epidermidis Chronic Foreign Body Osteomyelitis

Jose L. Del Pozo, Mark S. Rouse, Gorane Euba, Cheol-In Kang, Jayawant N. Mandrekar, James M. Steckelberg, and Robin Patel

Division of Infectious Diseases,Infectious Diseases Research Laboratory,Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics,Division of Clinical Microbiology, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota


Treatment with low-amperage (200 µA) electrical current was compared to intravenous doxycycline treatment or no treatment in a rabbit model of Staphylococcus epidermidis chronic foreign body osteomyelitis to determine if the electricidal effect is active in vivo. A stainless steel implant and 104 CFU of planktonic S. epidermidis were placed into the medullary cavity of the tibia. Four weeks later, rabbits were assigned to one of three groups with treatment administered for 21 days. The groups included those receiving no treatment (n = 10), intravenous doxycycline (n = 14; 8 mg/kg of body weight three times per day), and electrical current (n = 15; 200 µA continuous delivery). Following treatment, rabbits were sacrificed and the tibias quantitatively cultured. Bacterial load was significantly reduced in the doxycycline (median, 2.55 [range, 0.50 to 6.13] log10 CFU/g of bone) and electrical-current (median, 1.09 [range, 0.50 to 2.99] log10 CFU/g of bone) groups, compared to the level for the control group (median, 4.16 [range, 3.70 to 5.66] log10 CFU/g of bone) (P < 0.0001). Moreover, treatment with electrical current was statistically significantly more efficacious (P = 0.035) than doxycycline treatment. 


Laboratory of Microbiology Diagnostics Clinical Hospital no. 1
ul. Staszica 16, 20-081 Lublin, Poland

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of two positive off-set type current generating by devices, available on the natural medicine market, on the Candida albicans (fungus cells). In the course of the study, broth cultures of Candida albicans were subjected to the influence of these two devices for a period of 10 days. Every day, the culture density and growth on an agar medium were determined. The effects of each of the two devices on Candida albicans cells were found to be different.

There are many cleansing devices available on the natural medicine market but their effect on specific micro-organisms is different. This assumption was confirmed by our in vitro studies on the effect of two different devices. Our analysis of both Medikzap and NE 555 effects on Candida albicans cells has proved a greater efficacy of Medikzap device in fungi control than that of the NE 555 device. The NE 555 device was proved to have a static effect on Candida albicans cells but it does not eliminate them completely.

[read full report]

United States Patent 5,133,352

Lathrop , et al. July 28, 1992
Method for Treating Herpes Simplex


The present invention provides an apparatus and method for treating infectious skin conditions, such as Herpes Simplex 1 and 2. By the application of an electrical field and current to the area of the manifestation of the disease on the body there is activated a reaction at the cell level to combat the virus and disrupt its attack on the healthy cell structure. The present method comprises a direct application of a low voltage direct current, low amperage stimulation to the skin about the infected location for a few seconds every hour for a length of time sufficient to prevent formation and/or heal the resultant lesion.

Examples and Methods of Treatment
86 men and women between the ages of 19 and 37 participated in the study over a period of 3 months.
Subjects were placed in one of 3 groups as follows:
Group One: 23 control subjects. These received no electrical stimulation and reported onset, progress, and resolve of their lesions on a daily basis.
Group Two: 42 subjects. These were seen in a medical clinic with their electrical treatment supervised by a medical doctor. These patients took no drugs and were treated in the clinic commencing with the onset of each lesion and 4 times a week until the lesion resolved.
Group Three: 21 subjects. These were each issued a small electrical stimulation device (the same as the
Herpes Zapper ) and were told to always keep them handy. They were also told to be acutely aware of the onset of the next occurrence of itching, tingling, pain, or ache in the area. Once they noticed oncoming symptoms they were told to "use the electrical stimulator to make contact with the potential lesion site for 15 seconds. Continue this procedure once per hour for 8 hours without interruption on the first day of recognition of preliminary symptoms." They were also told to continue this procedure until the lesion resolved itself.
All of the subjects in this study suffered from either Herpes Simplex 1 (mouth herpes) or 2 (genital herpes). Prior onset of the disease ranged from 1.5 to 5 years.


Comparison of Treatment Procedures
      Herpes Simplex 1        Herpes Simplex 2
-------------------- --------------------

# of avg. days # of avg. days
patients of lesions patients of lesions
---------- ------------ ---------- ------------

Group 1 controls

Men 7 9 6 10
Women 4 7 6 8

(total patients=23. Average lesion duration per patient=8.5 days)
Group 2 clinically treated

Men 13 3 4 12
Women 15 4 10 3

(total patients=42. Average lesion duration per patient=5.5 days)
Group 3 self treated

Men 5 0 4 0
Women 4 0 8 1

(total patients=21. Average lesion duration per patient=.25 day)


As can be seen the most successful group were those who treated themselves prior to lesion onset, group #3.
The average duration of lesion existence for this group was only 1/4 day. It was also discovered that the sooner treatment starts after symptoms, the better the results. To prevent lesion formation it's necessary to start treatment within the first 12 hours after onset of symptoms.
Group 2 averaged 5 1/2 days lesion duration, and Group 1 averaged 8 1/2 days.
The data presented demonstrates that low voltage electrical current, when applied to the lesion site, can significantly reduce the time of persistence of that herpes lesion.
The data also shows more dramatically that self treatment with low voltage electrical current within the first 15 minutes of the occurrence of a symptom can prevent the occurrence of a lesion at that site of stimulation.