Our Colloidal Silver Maker add-on is nothing more than additional circuitry inside the Microbe Electrifier so that when the unit is on and the output cable is plugged into the C. Silver jack and connected to the silver electrodes (you'll need to buy silver electrodes #SE5 from wishgranted.com first) then you can make colloidal silver in distilled water.
Before you go any further you need to read this warning that corrects much misleading thinking on this subject:
Click here to read how colloidal silver sellers lie about the safety of it.
When two silver electrodes with opposing electrical charges of 30 - 36 volts are dipped into distilled water, then microscopic particles (colloids) of silver jump off the electrodes and into the water. Dr Henry Crooks wrote that colloidal particles are small enough to be useful to the body for nutritional purposes as well as being a powerful agent against viruses, bacteria, and fungus. In 1940 R. A. Kehoe reported that the avg daily intake of fruits and vegetables provided between 50 and 100 mcg silver. 1 teaspoon 5 ppm colloidal silver provides 25 mcg silver. This indicates that 2 teaspoons would give a nutritionally adequate amount of silver daily. More than that should only be taken for a short while during a health crisis (1 tbsp 3x daily, first held under tongue for sublingual absorption). When 8 oz of distilled water is treated correctly then the concentration of silver particles is ~5 parts per million (which is an ideal strength for most applications) at .001 - .004 microns in size. This colloidal silver solution is excellent as an external antibiotic and as a disinfectant in the kitchen and bathroom with hundreds of uses. It is also reported to help prevent opportunistic infections that may try to arise within the intestines and elsewhere in people with severe immune dysfunction while they are doing blood electrification. This can happen because the immune system can become distracted from keeping those infectious agents at bay once it sees so many newly disabled viruses and bacteria ready to be escorted out of the body with its help. Other than that, colloidal silver is known to be excellent when taken daily during the cold and flu season to help prevent one from getting sick or to cure the sickness. To read a documented pre-1938 list of 112 microbes that colloidal silver kills click
here. The Microbe Electrifiers can be equipped so people can make their own solutions which are just as good as the expensive bottles of it available in the Health Food Stores. The .001 non-silver metal from .999 silver that's put in the water is only 5 parts per billion which is much less than the level of impurities found in distilled water. 'Toxicity' is always measured in parts per million, so please don't worry. The .999 silver electrodes are very safe.
Make your colloidal silver any time other than the week surrounding the new moon (when the moon is overhead at noon) if you want to be successful. Also, The best time to make colloidal silver is during what is called 'the solunar period.' There are two solunar periods each day. They begin approximately 6 hours after either moon-rise or moon-set, and last for about 90 minutes. Since moon rise/set times change every day, you will have to find out when these times are for your local area. You can click here for a web site that can reveal the times for your city (or a city at the same latitude).
Fill the cup with the distilled water (not deionized) and then pour it into a pot to heat the water just enough so that you can't keep your fingers in the water. (make sure you wash first.) Plug the output cable into the female jack and connect the alligator clips onto the silver electrodes. It is best that the glass container is wrapped with black electrical tape to block out light. Then turn the unit ON. No other switch settings affect the process. Cover the top to block out light. Let the process proceed until the solution has a slight yellow color or is at the desired ppm according to readings from a particle density tester. If the process takes more than 30 minutes then it is best to have some sort of heat source close to the bottle in order to keep the water warm. I have successfully used an aquarium heater. Store the final solution in a glass bottle that blocks light. (At room temperature is OK.) After two hours when the particles are evenly dispersed in the water the color should be light yellow or golden yellow. Other colors indicate the particle size is slightly larger than the ideal size which may be due to using a low quality distilled water. If there is no color then clean the electrodes and treat another cup of water. If you're unable to produce yellow water then try another brand of distilled water. If the solution becomes very yellow then dilute it with more distilled water so that it's only slightly yellow to insure that the solution is close to being 5ppm silver. This is one way to make colloidal silver.
A more exacting method proposed by Peter Lindemann is to time the process for 10 minutes and then at the end of that time look closely at the water for silver particle clouds coming from the electrodes. They can be very faint looking wispy clouds and of a brown or yellowish color. Use a flashlight to look for them. Wait until you see them beginning (which may take 5-15 minutes more), then set the timer for another 5 minutes. Take the electrodes out at the end of that 5 minutes. This is the best method although it takes good eyesight to do it. With either method if it takes more than 25 minutes you should heat the distilled water more before treatment because heat accelerates the process. Try different temperatures up to boiling.
Shelf life is at least 6 months. If the silver particles stop being suspended in the water then the yellow color will not be evident. Clean the electrodes with a very rough plastic kitchen scrub pad (with all soap rinsed out) between each treatment. Don't ever stir the solution with anything metal. Never use silver cleaner or anything chemical to clean the electrodes. Try different brands of distilled water to see which brand best produces a yellow color when through. Avoid brands that cause excess black residue to accumulate on electrodes during treatment process. The best brand out of four I've tried is 'Land Sky' from Ingles grocery store. One way to test brands is to get a swimming pool PH tester from KMart and test for which brand has the lowest PH (which is more desirable). To know how many parts per million (ppm) of silver the final solution has, then just buy a Colloidal Silver tester from WishGranted and put it into the solution to get a digital readout.
A Closer Look At Colloidal Silver By Peter A. Lindemann(Developer of the CS-300 and Quik Silver Colloidal Silver Generators)
During the last two years, a number of books and articles have appeared in public on the subject of colloidal silver. Some of these include: the Bio-Tech News Special Report, "Hi-Yo Silver"; Colloidal Silver, The Natural Antibiotic Alternative, by Zane Baranowski; Colloidal Silver, by Tonita d'Raye; and "Banishing Disease with Three Nine Volt Batteries", parts I + II, by Mark Metcalf. Literally hundreds of other newsletters and small publications have repeated the information in these articles without checking the content for accuracy.
Making Your OwnThe simplest way to control these factors is to make the colloidal silver for yourself. By doing this, you will not know exactly what is there unless you do laboratory testing, but you will have a pretty good idea. Without laboratory testing of commercial products, you don't know much more, because the quality control batch to batch is loose with most brands. Also, by making it yourself, you will end up with real "colloidal" silver, which is the product referred to in most of the literature.
If you are already making your own colloidal silver, please pay special attention to this section because much of the information you now have may be incorrect.
The simplest way to make real colloidal silver at home is by the "low voltage electrolysis" method. A few batteries may be connected to some silver electrodes and placed in a glass of water. This process will cause small particles of silver to be sintered off the electrodes and enter the water. This deceptively simple method is very easy to do WRONG, and most people who are making colloidal silver at home are making an inferior product.
It's In The WaterWhen you do this yourself, it is very important to control the purity of the water, because the purity of the water is one of the factors that controls how small the particles of silver will be. Only high quality DISTILLED water should be used. You cannot use purified or filtered water because it still has too many dissolved minerals in it. You cannot use deionized water because it doesn't conduct electricity well enough to start the reaction. Distilled water is just perfect to start the reaction slowly and let it proceed properly.
Another variable that influences particle size is the water temperature. The warmer the water, the faster the reaction will take place, and the smaller the particles will be.
Please Pass The SaltRegardless of what anyone has said to the contrary, silver chloride will ALWAYS form if any amount of salt is present. Never add anything to the water that will make the water conduct electricity better. Never add salt, sea salt, or Celtic sea salt to the distilled water because the salt puts chloride ions in the water that react with the silver to form silver chloride. Another serious problem arises when making colloidal silver with salt in the water. The presence of salt increases the electrical conductivity of the water and this dramatically speeds up the reaction. As the reaction speeds up under these circumstances, it produces larger particles. The product produced is invariably cloudy-white in appearance. Actual electron microscope photographs of this material show silver particles in the range of .05 to .15 microns. These particles are TOO LARGE to form a colloidal suspension, and the proof is that the material will settle to the bottom of the container in a very short period of time. Therefore, this home brewed "colloidal silver" product may be dangerous to consume internally for TWO reasons: the presence of silver chloride and the production of large particles.
The Best Is Yet To ComeThe very best voltage for the reaction is 30 volts, because the electrodes run the cleanest at this voltage. If you have a small power supply, set it for 30 volts. If you are running on batteries, it is best to start at 36 volts (three 12 volt batteries or four 9 volt batteries) and let the batteries drain down from there. Holding the silver electrodes at a uniform distance away from each other yields a better product.
When 30 volts is applied across silver electrodes held uniformly apart in distilled water, a totally different event happens. First, the reaction proceeds very slowly. Often, for the first 15 minutes nothing seems to be happening. Then finally, a faint yellow mist will begin to form. Within a few minutes, the reaction will speed up, but the particles produced will be a golden-yellow as viewed with a flashlight. Using this method, 8 ounces of distilled water at room temperature can be made into a 3-5 ppm colloidal silver preparation in 20-25 minutes. Made this way, colloidal silver can cost under 10¢/oz to make. Electron microscope photographs of this product show a silver particle size in the range .001 to .004 microns. During manufacturing, the particle cloud is a golden-yellow. These particles will hang in the water at the level they are produced, and for the most part, will not fall to the bottom of the glass. This is what a "colloidal" preparation of silver looks like. After the particles disperse, the water will look clear again, but may turn a light yellow if the concentration is high enough and after the particles have become evenly dispersed.
"The Yellow Color"There has been a fair amount of controversy in the public literature concerning the appearance of the "yellow" color. A lot of well meaning people have told me that "yellow is bad", "silver isn't yellow", "yellow is sulfur contamination", "yellow is iron contamination", and lots of other things. I finally found what I believe to be the answer to this question in a book titled Practical Colloid Chemistry, published in London in 1926. In the section on the "Colours of Colloidal Metals", sub-section on the "Polychromism of silver solutions" on page 69, I found the following statements: "The continuous change in colour from yellow to blue corresponds to a change in the absorption maximum of the shorter to longer wave-lengths with a decreasing degree of dispersion. This is a general phenomenon in colloid chemistry illustrating the relation between colour and degree of dispersion." This section goes on to describe the colors that show up in a wide variety of colloidal metal solutions. Interestingly, they ALL have a yellow phase. For true "electro-colloidal" silver, the particle size range that can appear yellow is .01 to .001 microns (10 to 100 angstroms) because that is the size of silver particle that best absorbs the indigo light, leaving only its inverse color, yellow, to be observed. The final transparent-yellow appearance only shows up after the particles have become evenly dispersed.
The Brown Glass BottleOnce you have gone to the trouble of making colloidal silver particles as small as .001 microns, it is important to protect them. The particles stay away from each other in suspension because they each have a positive electrical charge (+) and these "like charges" repel each other. Anything that can strip this charge off the particles will degrade the quality of the colloidal silver by a process called re-coagulation, where the particles clump together again to form larger aggregates. Ultraviolet light from the sun and many plastics can cause this process to occur. Therefore, colloidal silver is best stored in dark, glass containers. The two kinds of glass container that are suitable for this are the dark amber and the cobalt blue.
The Same DifferenceThe biggest "secret" about the manufacture of high quality colloidal silver is that it is nearly impossible to standardize the product. Silver is apparently reactive to a number of natural forces that have yet to be identified. Even when the voltage, the water, and the water temperature are identical, different batches will proceed at different rates on different days. The speed of the reaction can vary by over 100% depending on the day. On "normal" days, the reaction is proceeding well by 15 minutes, with a visible cloud of particles. On "slow days" it may take 30 minutes before any visible production of yellow particles begins. Because of this variation, it is always wise to observe the reaction with a B flashlight so you can see how quickly the reaction is happening. Once the yellow cloud starts forming, time the batch for 5 more minutes. This is the best way to standardize your home brewed colloidal silver.
Colloidal or Ionic?Another big controversy surrounds the question of whether this method produces "colloidal" silver or "ionic" silver. Most people have been told that colloidal silver is "good" and ionic silver is "bad." Once again, the truth might be unpopular. The word "colloidal" refers to a condition where, in this case, a solid particle is SUSPENDED in a liquid (silver in water). The solid particles are too large to be considered DISSOLVED, but are too small to be filtered out. This colloidal condition is most easily detected by what is called the "Tyndall effect", where a narrow beam of light is shined through the liquid to produce a cone shaped dispersion of the light. The particles so illuminated also exhibit a random, zig-zag activity called "Brownian motion" when observed under a microscope. When something is completely dissolved, both the Brownian and Tyndall effects disappear.
The word "ionic" refers to a condition where a particle has an electric charge. In the case of "electro-colloidal" silver, this electric charge is ALWAYS positive. Silver will not form a negatively charged ion. So, the truth is that electro-colloidal silver is BOTH colloidal and ionic. It is considered colloidal because of the particle SIZE and it is considered ionic because of the particle CHARGE. In fact, most of the biological studies suggest it is colloidal silver's ionic characteristics that make it such a good germicide. It is also interesting to note that the old chemistry books make no distinction between the colloidal and ionic states of the electro-colloidal metals.
Purity of SilverThe quality of your finished product depends entirely on the purity of the water you start with and the purity of the silver you start with. Most of the current literature suggests that only 99.9999% pure silver can be used. Most home brew systems use 99.9% pure silver. So, what is the difference? To find out, I contacted Academy Metals, a company in Albuquerque, New Mexico, that produces commercial silver. The total allowable impurities in 99.9% (.999 fine) silver is 1000 ppm or 1 part in 1000. These impurities and their maximums are 1) Copper, 800 ppm, 2) Lead, 250 ppm, 3) Iron, 200 ppm, and 4) Bismuth, 10 ppm. This product is readily available in wire form and costs about $3.00 above the market (spot) price of silver. When this product is used to make electro-colloidal silver at a concentration of 5 ppm, the total impurities from the silver drop to 4 ppb (parts per billion) copper, 1.25 ppb lead, 1 ppb iron, .05 ppb bismuth. With all allowable impurities at these low levels, there is a reasonable argument for not being concerned. Still, sometimes small things make a big difference. 99.99% silver (.9999 fine) has total allowable impurities of 100 ppm of the same metals in the same ratios, and costs (in wire form) between $50-$90 above the spot price of silver. 99.999% silver (.99999 fine) has total allowable impurities of 10 ppm, and in wire form costs about $250 above the spot price. 99.9999% silver, in wire form, costs more than gold and is very difficult to find commercially.
In one sample of 10 ppm colloidal silver we sent out for total analysis (made with 99.9% silver electrodes), the primary impurities found were: 1) Sodium, 470 ppb, 2) Calcium, 260 ppb, 3) Manganese, 70 ppb, 4) Potassium, 50 ppb, and 5) Magnesium, 24 ppb. Since none of these impurities could have come from the silver, it suggests that the purity of the water should be of greater concern to the person making their own colloidal silver, than spending extra money on purer silver.
ConcentrationThe concentration of silver in the water is usually measured in parts per million, or ppm. While this is the standard convention, ppm is a "ratio" and not an indicator of quantity. When a laboratory tests colloidal silver for concentration, they report the findings in milligrams per liter (mg/L). Milligrams per liter is an actual measurement of weight per volume, and therefore is a real quantity measurement. In the metric system, one liter of water weighs 1000 grams, and one milligram is one thousandth (1/1000) of a gram, so 1 mg/L is the same as 1 ppm, as long as we are talking about water. Silver weighs a little more than water, but the equivalence is very close, and the terms are often used interchangeably. With this in mind, we can calculate that one teaspoon of 5 ppm colloidal silver has about 25 mcg (micrograms) of silver in it.
DosageIn 1940, R. A. Kehoe reported that under normal circumstances, the average daily intake of fruits and vegetables would provide between 50-100 mcg of silver as a trace element. Since that time, the commercial farm soils of this country have become extremely deficient in trace minerals. Although I do not have authoritative figures for silver, according to the Earth Summit Report, issued in 1992, the levels of soil based minerals in North America have dropped over 85% in the last 100 years. Assuming that our ancestor's diet used to contain trace silver, and that our diet probably has greatly reduced levels, there is a reasonable argument for supplementing with colloidal silver. Two teaspoons of 5 ppm colloidal silver provides about 50 mcg of silver and could be considered a "nutritional" amount, if taken on a daily basis. Any amount above four teaspoons a day or 100 mcg should be considered a "therapeutic" amount. That said, it should not be assumed that electro-colloidal silver is equivalent to or has the same metabolic effect as receiving trace silver from dietary plant sources. But since there are very few plant sources of trace silver available today, colloidal silver is probably the best substitute. If you want to experiment with taking colloidal silver for an extended period of time, stay within the amounts considered to be nutritional. If you want to experiment with larger doses, do so with caution, and only for a day or two at a time.
Safety and ToxicitySilver can act as a heavy metal poison in the body. It can also act as a trace mineral nutrient. The difference is in the particle size, NOT the concentration. Colloidal silver with a particle size of .001 microns has particles 100 times smaller than a preparation of silver with a particle size of .1 microns. The smaller the particle, the less likely it will behave as a toxin. Typically, the worst toxic reaction from metallic silver, cited in the medical literature, is a condition called Argyria. Argyria is primarily a cosmetic condition characterized by a permanent, bluish discoloration of the skin. Argyria causes no physical discomfort, and does not have any other known side effects. Your skin just looks bluish-gray. In fact, the term "blue bloods," in reference to the royal families of Europe, probably refers to a mild, argyrial condition caused by the constant eating of food from silver place settings. It is interesting to note, however, that there has never been a case of Argyria reported from the use of electro-colloidal silver, free of salts or other impurities.
Argyria, while not being a deadly condition, certainly is undesirable. It is usually caused by the massive intake of silver salts, such as silver nitrate, silver sulfate, and silver chloride. To determine just how toxic these substances are, I contacted the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry through their on-line information service at (http://atsdr1.atsdr.cdc.gov:8080/ToxProfiles). All of these silver salts are talked about as toxins, but the only consequence of even high exposure in humans that is listed is Argyria. EPA issues a "control code" for each toxic substance it tracks that can cause human illness. Silver nitrate and silver sulfate have control codes, but silver chloride does not. I received essentially the same information when I spoke with Dr. Eidson at the Department of Epidemiology in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Apparently, the government thinks silver and silver compounds are toxins that essentially have no significant toxic effects other than the ability to discolor your skin. Looking just a little deeper into the situation, I pulled out Lectures on Homeopathic Materia Medica by J.T. Kent. In the section on the use of metallic silver as a homeopathic remedy, there are 7½ pages of indications (symptoms) that include actions on the nerves and cartilage, as well as increased tendency toward emotional outbursts and mental excitability. In fact, the list of symptoms is rather extensive. So, exposure to silver may not kill you or cause organic disease, but that may not mean there is no toxicity. Apparently, silver has the ability to act as a subtle irritant as well as lodge in certain tissues. This suggests that taking colloidal silver every day may not be a good idea for people who already have these symptoms.
EffectivenessIn a study done, in part, by the Institute of Microbiology in Rome, Italy, and published in Applied and Environmental Microbiology, in December, 1992, various forms of silver were tested for their ability to kill micro-organisms. Pure electro-colloidal silver out performed silver nitrate, silver chloride, and silver sulfadiazine as a broad spectrum germicide. For all classes of bacteria, fungus, and mold samples tested, pure electro-colloidal silver worked better, and at much lower concentrations. They concluded that any additives reduced the effectiveness of the pure silver ion; the silver salts being as much as 100 times less effective.
Electro-colloidal silver's effectiveness as a broad-spectrum germicide is directly related to the number and size of the particles. The same volume of space taken up by one silver particle .1 microns in size, will hold about 10,000 silver particles .001 microns in size. This reduction in particle size not only allows for a greater distribution of the silver, but it also greatly increases the total surface area of silver available for interacting with the environment. These, plus the stability of the electrical charge, are the most important factors when considering the effectiveness of colloidal silver.
The RegulatorsWhile silver has been shown to be a very effective germicide, killing gram-negative bacteria, gram-positive bacteria, yeasts, molds, and viruses in laboratory experiments, this does not mean that it will invariably cure disease conditions in the body caused by these organisms. Colloidal silver is a fantastic adjunct to the home, but it is by no means a "cure-all". The biggest obstacle to using colloidal silver as a "home remedy" is the lack of information in the public domain on how to use it effectively in any given situation. The FDA has tested colloidal silver extensively and found that different micro-organisms succumb to its action at a wide variety of concentrations and exposure times. If any of this information entered the public domain, the FDA would consider their own research "unsubstantiated medical claims" and reason enough to classify colloidal silver as a "new drug." The "new drug" classification would be "required" because "new use protocols" had been developed that did not exist before 1938.
Here is an example of the problem. It is now estimated that one in four women will develop breast cancer in their lifetime. I have spoken to two women who claim to have cured themselves of breast cancer with colloidal silver. They were both diagnosed by biopsy. After the diagnosis, they took 2 teaspoons of colloidal silver a day until their surgery. One took a home-made product, the other took a silver protein product. In both cases, the biopsy of the removed breast tissue and lymph nodes was cancer free. The question is, will colloidal silver work this well for all cases of breast cancer? Probably not, but in the current legal and political environment, we may never know. No pharmaceutical company can control or monopolize ownership of colloidal silver, so none of them will ever fund the testing, which currently costs over $10 Million and takes 10 years. FDA says if you claim that colloidal silver cures breast cancer, that would classify it as a new drug, and the public cannot be given access to new drugs without proper testing. Using the FDA model, it could cost the public $1-billion to "prove" to the FDA what the FDA already knows about colloidal silver. Politics has definitely entered this picture. FDA does not want to be exposed as an enforcer for the drug companies, or be seen as an agency clearly not acting in the public's best interest. While these ideas are not new to some of us, it would be a startling revelation if a large portion of the population began thinking this way. FDA would certainly like to avoid this "public relations" embarrassment. The fact is, FDA has never spent our tax dollars discovering something important, and then published their findings for the benefit of the public at-large; especially when it involved something that was powerful, safe, and inexpensive for the public to make for themselves. Obviously, empowering the population to be self-reliant and frugal in relation to their own healthcare is not the FDA's responsibility.
Colloidal silver clearly has some extraordinary capabilities and hundreds of legitimate uses. But without standardization, quality control, and extensive medical testing, the public will never know how best to use colloidal silver in a given situation. FDA may yet try to restrict public access to colloidal silver, claiming it is unsafe, even though they know how "safe and effective" it CAN BE when used properly. In the absence of the release of this authoritative testing data, the public is left just experimenting and groping for the answers. A big fight over the public's access to colloidal silver may be looming because the cost of healthcare in this country is out of control, and the public is looking for inexpensive solutions that work. In that sense, colloidal silver could be "just what the doctor ordered."
Digestive InteractionsColloidal silver is apparently able to kill nearly all micro-organisms, including the "friendly flora" your digestive system needs for proper function. I have spoken with hundreds of people who have taken colloidal silver on a daily basis and have noticed no digestive upset, even after prolonged use. I have also spoken to two individuals who reported digestive upset after taking colloidal silver one time. So, in my experience, the die-off of friendly flora is possible, but rare.
There are a number of strategies that can reduce the probability of digestive interactions. The simplest one is to swish the colloidal silver around in your mouth for 30 seconds before swallowing. This promotes an absorption of the colloidal silver into the body away from the intestinal tract. Another strategy is to take smaller doses, multiple times per day, or with meals. Either way, if you do experience a die-off of friendly flora, they can be re-populated by taking any of the acidophilus products on the market.
Septic TanksSeptic tanks are like your home's intestinal tract. They only work when populated with friendly flora. If you live in a rural area with your house on a septic system and you are making your own colloidal silver, make sure you don't throw a lot of it down the sink or your septic system may stop working properly. This problem can be handled by using a product like RID-X periodically, which is a good idea anyway.
ConclusionsColloidal silver is an extraordinary product. It can enhance your health and the health of your family in hundreds of ways. Everyone should learn how to make high quality colloidal silver, and have that capability in their home, in case the regulators restrict its availability at some point in the future. This could be the best "health insurance" policy you ever implemented!
If you buy one of the colloidal silver makers on the market, make sure it can make the "yellow" particles. When you make it yourself, make sure you are making the "yellow" particles. If you have any doubts about the quality of the product you are making or buying, you can send samples to any of the following laboratories for definitive testing.
For particle size testing with electron microscope, contact: EMS Laboratories, 117 West Bellevue Drive, Pasadena, CA 91105 (818) 568-4065 Price will be under $200 per sample.
For concentration test (mg/L) of total dissolved solids, contact: Associated Laboratories, 806 North Batavia, Orange, CA 92668 (714) 771-6900 Call for prices.
For elemental analysis, including "Tyndall effect" and "precipitation" test, contact: Kimball Laboratories, 600 East 11800 South, Draper, UT 84020 (801) 571-3695 Call for prices.
These companies are busy professionals who have no idea I am listing them in this article. Please don't waste their time unless you plan to submit samples for testing with payment.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, on-line information service: (http://atsdr1.atsdr.cdc.gov:8080/ToxProfiles)
Kehoe, R. A. et al, 1940. J. Nutr. 19:579.
Kent, J.T. Lectures on Homeopathic Materia Medica, Jain Publishing Co. New Delhi, India, reprint 1982.
Michaelis, L. The Effects of Ions in Colloidal Systems, Williams + Williams Co. Baltimore, MD, 1925.
Ostwald, W. Practical Colloid Chemistry, Methuen + Co. Ltd. London, UK, 1926.
Simonetti, N. et al, Electrochemical Ag+ for Preservative Use. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. American Society for Microbiology: Washington,1992, Vol. 58, No. 12, pp
The Association for Avanced Colloid Research, 232 NE Lincoln St. Ste."G", Hillsboro, OR 97124, private conversations.
Borderland Sciences Research Foundation, PO Box 220, Bayside, CA 95442
Special thanks to Michael Theroux for valuable research and private consultation.