Effects of Microamperage, Medium, and Bacterial Concentration on Iontophoretic Killing of Bacteria in Fluid
C P Davis, S Weinberg, M D Anderson, G M Rao and M M Warren
Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, April 1989, p. 442-447
An ionotophoretic generator was used to provide microamperage (10 to 400uA) to vials [by 2cm long thin metal electrodes] containg either synthetic urine or supplemented synthetic urine. Bacteria were added to vials [volume 10ml]. E coli and Proteus species were both inhibited and killed at various microamperages and with several electrode types. In general, ionotophoresis at 10, 50, 200, and 400uA killed the bacterial inocula within 2 days. Usually, the organisms were undetectable within 4 hours, except for K. pneumoniae, for which survivors were detected after 1 to 2 days.
This work suggests that even very low microamperage can be effective in reducing or eliminating bacterial growth. Klebsiella pneumoniae in supplemented synthetic urine was least inhibited in growth, and higher microamperage (200 to 400 microA) was most effective in killing the bacteria. Bacterial growth reduction and killing were directly related to increasing microamperage.
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Journal of Electrostatics
Volume 66, Issues 7-8, July 2008, Pages 355-360
Inactivation of bacterial population in hide-soak liquors via direct electric current
Inactivation of bacteria by electric currents has received much attention due to its high efficiency, low cost, and ease of application.
Mesophilic bacteria in the first (seven samples) and main (three samples) hide-soak liquors were inactivated after 20–30 min of electrical treatment. In the other four main hide-soak liquors, the inactivation occurred after 50 min of treatment.
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The Electricidal Effect Is Active in an Experimental Model of Staphylococcus epidermidis Chronic Foreign Body Osteomyelitis
Jose L. Del Pozo, Mark S. Rouse, Gorane Euba, Cheol-In Kang, Jayawant N. Mandrekar, James M. Steckelberg, and Robin Patel
Division of Infectious Diseases,Infectious Diseases Research Laboratory,Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics,Division of Clinical Microbiology, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota
Treatment with low-amperage (200 µA) electrical current was compared to intravenous doxycycline treatment or no treatment in a rabbit model of Staphylococcus epidermidis chronic foreign body osteomyelitis to determine if the electricidal effect is active in vivo. A stainless steel implant and 104 CFU of planktonic S. epidermidis were placed into the medullary cavity of the tibia. Four weeks later, rabbits were assigned to one of three groups with treatment administered for 21 days. The groups included those receiving no treatment (n = 10), intravenous doxycycline (n = 14; 8 mg/kg of body weight three times per day), and electrical current (n = 15; 200 µA continuous delivery). Following treatment, rabbits were sacrificed and the tibias quantitatively cultured. Bacterial load was significantly reduced in the doxycycline (median, 2.55 [range, 0.50 to 6.13] log10 CFU/g of bone) and electrical-current (median, 1.09 [range, 0.50 to 2.99] log10 CFU/g of bone) groups, compared to the level for the control group (median, 4.16 [range, 3.70 to 5.66] log10 CFU/g of bone) (P < 0.0001). Moreover, treatment with electrical current was statistically significantly more efficacious (P = 0.035) than doxycycline treatment.
Testimony of success with DC against infection:
"I just got back from Maui and while there my wife got this really vicious bladder infection (the ladies know what I mean) passing blood ect. Always carrying my direct current device with me. It was a simple matter of placing one electrode under tail bone and the other in the obvious spot at 2mA for 15mins AM and PM. And that killed it !!!!!!!!! This is the first time she has ever whipped this type of infection ever without anti-biotics. Too cool. She may become a believer yet!! Frank McCleary"
Click here for a report on how immune cells can use an
electric shock to kill bacteria and fungus.